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Discovered: 2001 Location: Eastern Africa (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya) How many years ago: 6.2-5.8 million years ago Nickname: the Millenium Man Number of fossils found: 13 fossils from at least 5 different individuals Key fossils: Two putative hominin taxa are known from ca. The age of Orrorin tugenensis. [9] These features are shared with many species of Australopithecus. Where Lived:Eastern Africa (Tugen Hills, central Kenya) When Lived:Sometime between 6.2 and 5.8 million years ago. [7] The current prevailing theory is that Orrorin tugenensis is a basal hominin and that bipedalism developed early in the hominin clade and successfully evolved down the human evolutionary tree. Orrorin tugenensis. The specimen is nicknamed “Millenium Man” and is dated to around 6 Ma. [9] It has been suggested by Pickford that the many features Orrorin shares with modern humans show that it is more closely related to Homo sapiens than to Australopithecus. [4], In the femur, the head is spherical and rotated anteriorly; the neck is elongated and oval in section and the lesser trochanter protrudes medially. A 2001 fossil find called Orrorin tugenensis, dated 6 million years of age, appears to have been a chimp-sized creature that climbed easily and walked on two legs when on the ground. The specimen is nicknamed “Millenium Man” and is dated to around 6 Ma. [7] According to recent studies Orrorin tugenensis is a basal hominid that adapted an early form of bipedalism. Distribution. [1], The name of genus Orrorin (plural Orroriek) means "original man" in Tugen,[2][3] and the name of the only classified species, O. tugenensis, derives from Tugen Hills in Kenya, where the first fossil was found in 2000. Orrorin tugenensis primitive traits: curved phalanges : Orrorin tugenensis location of discovery: Tugen Hills near Lake Turkana, Kenya : Ardipithecus ramidus period of existence: 4.4 million years ago BAR 1000’00 is the type specimen for Orrorin tugenensis, and was discovered by Kiptalam Cheboi on October 25, 2000 in Tugen Hills, Kenya. 〚9〛. Orrorin tugenensis is significant in the origins of human evolution because it can be classified as an early bipedal hominin. The main similarity is that the Orrorin femur is morphologically closer to that of Homo sapiens than is Lucy's; there is, however, some debate over this point. Dated to around 6 million years ago; the name means “original man” in Tugen, the African language spoken in the region, and tugenensisrefers to the discovery site, the Tugen Hills of western Kenya. Orrorin tugenensis: Found in Kenya about 6 ma (shape of femur suggests it was a biped) 83. The specimen consists of a fragmentary mandible, but is part of a collection of 13 fossil specimens that includes significant postcranial material. Human evolution is the evolutionary process that led to the emergence of anatomically modern humans, beginning with the evolutionary history of primates â€" in particular genus Homo â€" and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a distinct species of the hominid family, the great apes. This homonid lived from 6.2 MYA to 5.6 MYA. [8] This would mean that Australopithecus would represent a side branch in the homin evolution that does not directly lead to Homo. C) is the undisputed "missing link." Fossils have been found at four sites (Cheboit, Kapsomin, Kapcheberek, and Aragai) in the Tugen Hills, Kenya. Australopithecus afarensis: Broke new ground in our understanding of the origin of time meant for bipedality 85. Orrorin tugenensis is a postulated early species of Homininae, estimated at 6.1 to 5.7 million years (Ma) and discovered in 2000. PHYLOGENY. From fossil skulls to tool technologies, the history of the hominids is written in stone. eFossils is a collaborative website in which users can explore important fossil localities and browse the fossil digital library. The Hominid Fossil Repository serves as a guide to identifying fossil hominid specimens and the tools used by some of our earliest ancestors. 6. [8] However the femora morphology of O. tugenensis shares many similarities with Australopithicine femora morphology, which weakens this claim. [4], The 20 specimens found as of 2007 include: the posterior part of a mandible in two pieces; a symphysis and several isolated teeth; three fragments of femora; a partial humerus; a proximal phalanx; and a distal thumb phalanx. Six-million-year-old hominid fossils were discovered here in 2000 by Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford; the species was named Orrorin tugenensis after the location. , Reports, 3 Sept. 2004, p. [1450][1]) was surprising. Although sample locations were not described, the geochronology of the Late Miocene strata in the Baringo Basin including the Lukeino Formation was reported by Hill et al. [7] An analysis of the BAR 10020' 00 femur showed that Orrorin is an intermediate between Pan and Australopithecus afarensis. One, Orrorin tugenensis, was established to accommodate dental and postcranial remains recovered from ca. While these suggest that Orrorin was bipedal, the rest of the postcranium indicates it climbed trees. [4], Postulated early hominin discovered in Kenya, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHenke2007 (, "Whereabouts of fossil treasure sparks row", "The femur of Orrorin tugenensis exhibits morphometric affinities with both Miocene apes and later hominins", "Orrorin Tugenensis: Pushing back the hominin line", "Martin Pickford answers a few questions about this month's fast breaking paper in field of Geosciences", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Orrorin&oldid=996432010, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 15:56. Start studying anthro exam 2. O. tugenensis is primitive in most if not all of its anatomy, except for femurs (thighbones) that appear to… Read More; human evolution Orrorin tugenensis, a hominid with the brain size of a chimp, was discovered in the Lukeino Formation near Lake Baringo in western Kenya. The ancestry of O. tugenensis is unknown. B) lacks any possible evidence that it was bipedal. [6], However, another point of view cites comparisons between Orrorin and other Miocene apes, rather than extant great apes, which shows instead that the femur shows itself as an intermediate between that of Australopiths and said earlier apes. [6], The fossils of Orrorin tugenensis share no derived features of hominoid great-ape relatives. In 2001 these fossils were described as the earliest known hominin. [9] The length of the femoral neck in Orrorin tugenensis fossils is elongated and is similar in shape and length to Australopithicines and modern humans. The fossils include fragmentary arm and thigh bones, lower jaws, and teeth and were discovered in deposits that are about 6 million years old. Orrorin had small post-canines and was microdont, like modern humans, whereas robust australopithecines were megadont. They suggest that the hominin tribe split prior to 6 mya with Orrorin and some species of australopiths (specifically Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecusafarensis, which they place in the genus Preanthropus) in the human lineage and ardipiths and robust … It is not confirmed how Orrorin is related to modern humans.Its discovery was used to argue against the hypothesis that australopithecines are human ancestors, as much as it still remains the most prevalent hypothesis of human evolution as of 2012. Sahelanthropus tchadensis is one of the oldest known species in the human family tree.This species lived sometime between 7 and 6 million years ago in West-Central Africa (Chad). Its discovery was used to argue against the hypothesis that australopithecines are human ancestors, as much as it still remains the most prevalent hypothesis of human evolution as of 2012. It is not confirmed how Orrorin is related to modern humans. In 1975, he named the fossilised finds “Orrorin tugenensis”, which means: “Original man of Tugen Hills”. [9] Another study conducted by Almecija suggested that Orrorin is more closely related to early hominins than to Homo. [8] In contrast, "Orrorin shares several apomorphic features with modern humans, as well as some with australopithecines, including the presence of an obturator externus groove, elongated femoral neck, anteriorly twisted head (posterior twist in Australopithecus), anteroposteriorly compressed femoral neck, asymmetric distribution of cortexin the femoral neck, shallow superior notch, and a well developed gluteal tuberosity which coalesces vertically with  the  crest  that  descends  the  femoral  shaft  poste-riorly. ) was surprising in this region: Cheboit, Kapsomin, Kapcheberek, more! Region: Cheboit, Kapsomin, Kapcheberek, and Aragai that Two putative hominin taxa known. ' 00 femur showed that Orrorin is related to modern humans studies Orrorin,. 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