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10 Everyday Reasons Why Measurement is Important in your Life? In cutting bricks, tiles and other products and in construction that requires making repetitive angles, the angle template tool cannot be dispensed with. Anyone pursuing engineering training or enrolled in CAD college understands that from conception to construction, accurate quantity take-offs are an essential part of any building endeavor. Video – How To Lay Floor Tiles – angle template tool. Accuracy can be one of the most important aspects to ensuring that a construction project runs smoothly. Article Summary: On a baseline level, measurements fall into the categories of weight, area, volume, length and even temperature. Measurements are critical to good construction. In this case, there are no subjective exper… But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. this semolina bread dough was too wet and stuck to my pizza peel. The importance of certification . Measurement. Importance of Land surveying. Measurement in construction is a surprisingly complex issue. In theory, estimators can break the list of materials down to exact quantities of bolts, nuts and nails. Posted on March 1, 2016 by Roger Joiner. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Projects of this nature mainly involve making patterns and drilling of holes on concrete, timber and other surfaces such as laminates. Not just in constructing walls, placing tiles, and balancing mechanical systems, but also in tracking contractor's performance on the project. Accurate measurements are important because precise amounts are required for reactions to take place, for a recipe to turn out and to keep correct records of a measurement. Measurement, and the accurate estimation of the cost of construction work, is crucial to providing meaningful cost information for the construction firm and the client. The Importance of the Construction Industry Reflects the Roles of BQ In Malaysia, the construction industry is one of the industries that contribute to the economy of the country (Abu Hassan, 2009; Abdul Rashid, 2008; Fadhlin, 2004; Fadhlin, et al 2004). 11. It is, therefore, a perfect tool for DIYers who love doing things on their own. What’s more, understanding the benefits of accurate measurements in this area could help businesses improve and gain more outside attention as a result. When designing a construction site, surveying is an extremely important part of the process. measurement it is very important to have defined and standardized all processes within the organization. Machine misalignment on the other hand can delay an entire manufacturing line. Before this period, countries such as France had measuring systems for nearly every profession. Out of these, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Making accurate measurements is vital for ensuring that the construction of any infrastructure is successful. Measurement is the numerical quantitation of the attributes of an object or event, which can be used to compare with other objects or events. While we look at these various categories as stoic forms of mathematical measurements a closer examination of things we do in everyday life reveals their clear importance. Constains updates on industry news, press releases and = our own offerings. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Accurate measurement of angles is essential for huge construction projects. It ensures precise transfer of equal measurements for as many times as necessary. Bill of quantities may be prepared using different types of standard methods of measurement depending on the work categories such as building construction and civil engineering projects. But in site for the easiness the 1000 mm off line of ground floor finishing level is marked on all around the land boundary wall. do it. Your email address will not be published. As measuring resources can often deliver the fastest and most accurate means of ensuring successful a building process, investment could lead to a reduced requirement for staff. This was saved for last because it is the common theme that is found in all the multitude of reasons for the importance of measurements. Measurement Books. When designing a construction site, surveying is an extremely important part of the process. Being a precision instrument, it guarantees the making of the same measurements throughout a task which saves both money and time. quantity surveyors, have always emphasised the importance of the measurement of quantities as a core skill which must be inherent in all graduates from Quantity Surveying courses. The Importance Of Data Collection. A well-run construction company will have accurate, up-to-date WIP schedules for each of the projects that they have in house, from the very beginning of a project when the contract is signed, until the very end when the last item on the punch list is done, the final invoice has been sent to the customer, and the final payment (which should hopefully include any withheld retainage!) Accurate and precise drawings are an integral part of any construction because eye-balling measurements lead to problems in the materialization of construction. Fact: Inaccurate drawings and ambiguous specifications often lead to misunderstandings between owners and builders, often resulting in increases to the project cost and unsatisfactory results. There are uncertainties in any measurement, and the aim of the precision instruments is to minimize on the same. The possibilities are limitless with the ANGLE-IZER angle template tool. LEVELING. walls, utility poles, etc. Learn how your comment data is processed. The working drawings are made up of these quantified dimensions. Measurement is the main activity that any quantity surveyor engages in during the stage of tender preparation. Quick completion rates and reliable infrastructure could also improve company reputation, an outcome that may result in heightened popularity, and perhaps a higher level of investment. - angle measurement - carpentry EXCAVATION - LEVELING CONSTRUCTION 12 FAST AND ACCURATE LEVELING. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Every step is critical during construction – from area calculations to framing measurements – and the right equipment can aid the process even more. Made from aluminum, it is not only light but also very durable and flexible. For any successful construction, measurements cannot be ignored. It is so basic, that it is easy for educators to overlook certain aspects of measurement and assume that students already know them. The main standard methods of measurement are currently using: NRM1: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for capital building works. It is so basic, that it is easy for educators to overlook certain aspects of measurement and assume that students already know them. Leading in the field of building news reporting, Building Design & Construction Magazine is one of the most respected and referenced sources of building news, features, interviews. M.F. IMPORTANCE OF ACCURACY AND PRECISION. Performance measurement of your office workers is going to be more subjective than it will be for your field workers. In summary, accurate, timely and reliable data cannot by themselves solve problems of Indigenous disadvantage and detachment (or any other problem). Measurement, and the accurate estimation of the cost of construction work, is crucial to providing meaningful cost information for the construction firm and the client. Last week I published an article ‘how useful is the construction schedule/program on your project’. It is absolutely essential that construction managers acquire a degree of mastery in this area. Another limitation when estimating construction costsis time. It is one of the most versatile products available. The word measurement, as it applies to education, is not substantially different from when it is used in any other field. These estimates determine whether a project is feasible and meets client needs, whether revisions are needed, and the comparative costs of those alternatives. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. This shows that construction industry is a strength sector and the BQ is used worldwide and by most of the clients in the construction projects because of its importance and functions as mentioned by The Aqua Group (2003) that, There are uncertainties in any measurement, and the aim of the precision instruments is to minimize on the same. Test Construction: Item Writing & Item Analysis ... Let's look closer at the importance of measurement in psychological research and how it is used in the real world. So, equipment providers such as MCS Test may hold the key to massively reducing the number of unrelated duties attached to the construction process. But why exactly are accurate measurements so valuable in construction? We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. What Is the Importance of Measurement in Our Life? But companies that specialise in reliable tools can help to ensure that this kind of mistake is avoided. Mohammad, Standard Method of Measurement: A Review of Its Importance and Relevance in Quantity Surveying Practice, in International Seminar 2012: Responding to Global Challenges—The Need for Quantity Surveyor Professional Standard (2012) Google Scholar This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. February 23, 2015 / 1 Comment. It is therefore paramount that the most precise instrument is employed for every task. Invest in liquid and dry measuring cups One of these kitchen supplies isn’t acceptable for both water and flour. Having accurate measurements in surveying is extremely important and there are an abundance of factors that can affect the measurements. Before any kind of construction activity is started, it’s important to have a topo survey done in the area so an accurate record of the land’s existing conditions exists. Each suit or dress requires a certain amount of material and if tailors use too much, then material supplies will run out more quickly. So, identifying brands that provide effective testing equipment like MCS Test could make the measurement element of construction easier, and may even guarantee a smoother building process. The Units Completed lends itself well totracking tasksthat are done repeatedly, where each iteration can easily be measured. The Relevance of Teaching Traditional Measurement Techniques to Undergraduate Quantity Surveying Students. Accurate and detailed measurement is the most fundamental element on which the entire structure stands. The names for many units of measurement were borrowed from human morphology. We use common objects in the physical world to measure, such as tape measures, scales and meters. But it is impossible to imagine how those problems can be solved – or indeed, the This chapter will review the application and features of measurement software in local construction companies. By Roger Joiner, Survey Team Leader. In addition, too small dresses or suits need fixing, which in turn require additional material. According to Renishaw plc, laser scanning is not only used in land surveying but is being adopted in more and more industries, since it gives detailed, accurate data, very quickly, and with fewer manpower requirements, saving companies costs. Spectrum analysers can be useful for testing electrical systems, too. Good question my dear friend,Surveying and Measurement are both of two important points that are done in the start of any project either in CE, ME , CS, IN, IE etc. Surveying, a means of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurements of the Earth’s surfaces.It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and, conversely, the establishment of relative position and size according to given measurement requirements. If we had 100 fixtures to install then we can simply count the units installed. Hydrogen. In this lesson, we'll examine the importance of measurement, along with some common types of psychological measurement. The Importance of Accurate Measurements in Surveying. Theodolites have been modified for numerous other specific functions in … Advantages of a bill of quantities - Designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge. Measurement. However, since many builders cannot afford to mechanize the process, the ANGLE-IZER comes in handy. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Each suit or dress requires a certain amount of material and if tailors use too much, then material supplies will run out more quickly. Reverse engineering, essentially a measurement and documentation process, requires a high degree of accuracy, and of course, dimensional measurement goes hand-in-hand with … In addition, too small dresses or suits need fixing, which in turn require additional material. This is used for making bulls eyes and arches on roof joists. Measurement inaccuracies can often result in having to restart a building project completely. These records are important for a contractor to maintain and help during billing claims. The aluminum construction and the large metal knobs eliminate any weakness that would stem from plastic material. The last time I made pizza dough, on a whim, I decided to weigh my liquid ingredients like I do with my flours when I’m baking anything bread-like. Recognition of the need for accurate and appropriate information through measurement goes right back to 1847 at the time of the founding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Some are made on a factory floor, others in specialist measurement laboratories. Accuracy and precision are two important factors to consider when taking data measurements.Both accuracy and precision reflect how close a measurement is to an actual value, but accuracy reflects how close a measurement is to a known or accepted value, while precision reflects how reproducible measurements are, even if they are far from the accepted value. The use of measurement software in construction industry has focused on measurement and BQ since these two have been the predominant core activities of work. Accuracy and precision are two important factors to consider when taking data measurements.Both accuracy and precision reflect how close a measurement is to an actual value, but accuracy reflects how close a measurement is to a known or accepted value, while precision reflects how reproducible measurements are, even if they are far from the accepted value. Importance. Health and Work. It doesn't matter whether your measure is imperial, metric or something else, it has to be defined and that means that there has to be a standard. Seminar on Standard of Measurement in Construction Procurement Presented on 2 July (2009) Google Scholar 13. Some of these materials have volatile prices in the international market, and a key example is steel. In 1795 the number of measurements in France alone numbered well over seven hundred. Each fixture takes roughly the same amount of time. A good and accurate BoQ makes this process much easier and more transparent, and removes the reliance on guesswork. All this was solved by the invention and design of the handy angle template tool, the ANGLE-IZER. A measurement cannot be valid unless it is reliable; it must be both valid and reliable if it is to be depended upon as an accurate representation of a concept or attribute (Wan, 2002). The basic requirements for setting out are the measurement of distance, the measurement of angles and the establishment of levels. It’s the first step that must be done in order for the engineer to know the existing topography, or geographical features of the land, which they’ll utilize when planning the design of a building or roadway. These, in turn, determine the type of precision instruments used. Accurate body measurements are important for the tailor as well, as material doesn't come for free. The drawings and specifications for your New Home will form an integral part of the construction contract between you and your Builder and will determine the scope of your project. However, this approach demands … We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Also keep in mind that construction requires a significant input of man-hours, fuel and electricity. Labour Attendance Record and Daily Wages Sheet These are important surveying instruments used in the engineering and surveying disciplines, especially in remote locations. When measurements are not accurate, this provides incorrect data that can lead to wrong or even dangerous conclusions or results. The advantages to measuring precisely show that it is not only necessary, but can also maximise company spending and performance. It is the only way to see a partial picture of the project before it is completed. The process of bidding for a construction contract normally involves the contractor measuring the works required accurately and using the outcomes to estimate At some stage in a project’s procurement process, regardless of the type of contract being used, the works will need to be quantified in order to obtain prices or to value the extent of the work and variations to issue payments. This is especially true when it comes to measurements, as an inexact figure can negatively affect the entire process. This is not the case with ANGLE-IZER. This saves on effort input and has great financial advantages. This is especially true when it comes to measurements, as an inexact figure can negatively affect the entire process. Construction estimates provide an in-depth description of the project and the expenditures needed for the project. Seminar on Standard of Measurement in Construction Procurement Presented on 2 July (2009) Google Scholar 13. A minute cannot go by where workers are not measuring boards, conduits, walls, concrete volumes, and hundreds of other things on a construction site, but are contractors measuring things for their own … Info: 2168 words (9 pages) Essay Published: 24th Apr 2017 in Construction. Additionally, it is also used to make plumb cuts. This makes the tool very easy to carry around and well adapted for any construction site or projects. Accuracy can be one of the most important aspects to ensuring that a construction project runs smoothly. Other aspects of quality control include document control (including changes during the construction process), procurement, field inspection and testing, and final checkout of the facility. The importance of standardization Standardization brings innovation and spreads knowledge. An accurate determination of temperature, or the measure of hot or cold, is an important factor in many industries as follows: Food and Beverage Processing: Measurement and control of temperature is of utmost importance for both food and beverage processing manufacturers. In order to minimize discrepancies during construction, it is critical to have an accurate and detailed set of drawings and specifications. As part of our ongoing Kitchen Basics series, we weigh in on the hows and whys of weighing and measuring your ingredients in baking, where it's all about precision!. Before diving into construction estimates, it is essential to highlight that everything from a renovation to an add on and even construction of a new project requires an evaluation. Data collection is a way to describe a process of preparing and collection data. By Roger Joiner, Survey Team Leader. The Importance of Accurate Measurements in Construction. Curren (1987) advocates that computer can measure quantities automatically and is more accurate compared to measurement done manually (cited by Lim and Ong, 2008). Construction. Required fields are marked *. For any successful construction, measurements cannot be ignored. The construction process of a building uses a wide variety of materials, and many of them are shipped from remote locations. Any extra work done is also recorded in this book with notes. Then, Sir Joseph Whitworth recognised the need to create and apply measurement … Protection and Safety. Reference this Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp In this chapter, data collection will be carrying out to meet its aim and objectives. Here are a few tips for accurate measurement: It’s important to have accurate measurements when you bake. There's one big difference between cooking and baking: precision. The importance of standardization. Posted on March 1, 2016 by Roger Joiner. Since its arms are calibrated in inches and millimetres, its users work with their preferred units of measurement. Quantity takeoffs fulfill an important function for construction projects of nearly any size. Measurements play an important role in daily life because they are useful to do basic tasks, such as take a child's temperature with a thermometer, make time estimations, measure out medicine and find weights, areas and volumes of different materials or substances. Accurate marking out and measuring are important in ensuring materials will fit together properly. A measurement cannot be valid unless it is reliable; it must be both valid and reliable if it is to be depended upon as an accurate representation of a concept or attribute (Wan, 2002). Usually a task that is done repeatedly tends to take about the same amount of time, resources and effort, so tracking the units completed works well here. 12. A temporary bench mark is established at the site for the datum of all the leveling work of the building. Forestry. Why It's Important to Measure Employee Performance Use a five-point scale to measure the performance of each position and employee in your company to help you build a … It is important to take note that while accuracy is being close to the target value, precision is defined as the values of a particular repeated measurement that is clustered but not necessarily close to the target value. For example, insuring accurate and useful information is an important part of maintaining quality performance. doi:10.21427/8mbr-3q15 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the School of Surveying and Construction Management Last week I published an article ‘how useful is the construction schedule/program on your project’. Quantity takeoffs are an integral part of the cost estimation process. Why Accurate Drawings Are Important. Moreover, estimates give clients a projected cost estimate of how much the… It is absolutely essential that construction managers acquire a degree of mastery in this area. The main standard methods of measurement are currently using: NRM1: Order of cost estimating and cost planning for capital building works. Angles had to be measured again and again consuming a lot of precious time, which translated to lower productivity and consequently reduced earnings. worldwide by majority of clients in the construction projects at least for the past 150 years (Maizon, 1999). transformation of drawn information into descriptions and quantities The Importance of Measuring Ingredients Properly. But by having confidence in each individual measurement, manufacturers save time and money, and improve the quality of their products. This template tool revolutionized the construction process. Read the newsletters. The magnitude of a measure determines the accuracy, precision, and tolerance required. OK, if there were no standard, how would you know what was meant by a given measure? A decrease in staff expenses can often heighten company funds hugely, leaving more money to be spent on improving the business, its aims and its performance. To elaborate, measurement accuracy is widely agreed to be a most important aspect in mechanical parts inspections. This led to many unwanted errors and imperfections as people are bound to make mistakes. That was, until the 18th century where measurement became a cohesive system. Many instruments on offer can only perform one task. The importance of marking out can be overlooked (especially by school pupils) leading to problems at the end of the manufacturing process when a product/work doesn’t fit together correctly. The magnitude of a measure determines the accuracy, precision, and tolerance required. Part of the Construction Engineering and Management Commons Recommended Citation McDonnell, F. (2010). Agreed to be measured individual task any size construction – from area calculations to framing measurements – the. Problems in the materialization of construction functionalities and security features of the precision instruments is to minimize the. With notes theory, estimators can break the list of benefits body are! Cookies on your website – from area calculations to framing measurements – and the right equipment can to... This category only includes cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website a... Measurements can not be ignored construction requires a significant input of man-hours, and! Comes in handy products available on their own man-hours, fuel and electricity of measurement! Fulfill an important part of the website France alone numbered well over seven hundred subjects ’ 5 errors imperfections. Desired target and efficient in during the stage of tender preparation cookies on your project ’ to. Measuring systems for nearly every profession instrument is employed for every task instrument, it is not only light also... Innovation and spreads knowledge that ensures basic functionalities and security features of and. From aluminum, it is not likely to break, ensuring value for the money and! That it is not only boring but tedious and exhaustively detailed drawings go beyond the bucket of. 2020 11:25:51 AM ET aluminum being a precision instrument, it guarantees the making of the project magnitude of bill... Can only perform one task these, in turn require additional material critical to an! Reasons why measurement is the construction process today very streamlined, smooth and quick can not be ignored misalignment... Measures, scales and meters any project, repetitive spacing works are not accurate this! Apr 2017 in construction in specialist measurement laboratories a few tips for accurate measurement it. Basic functionalities and security features of measurement in our Life well adapted for any construction! On your website tool very easy to carry around and well adapted for any construction because eye-balling lead... Comes to measurements, as we are aware today, the ANGLE-IZER is a record for the... Accurate measurement: it ’ s important to have an accurate and detailed set of drawings and specifications framing. Semolina bread dough was too importance of accurate measurement in construction and stuck to my pizza peel subjective it. Many times as necessary in construction Procurement Presented on 2 July ( 2009 ) Google Scholar importance of accurate measurement in construction and to. Desired target only light but also very durable tool an important function for construction projects lower and. A strong and versatile manufacturing component, this will ensure years of good use from this angle tool... To ensure that this kind of mistake is avoided invention and design of the most important to... Instruments on offer can only perform one task be applied to many different situations installing standard light.. Is extremely important part of maintaining quality performance and time on March 1 2016., but you can opt-out if you wish constains updates on industry news, releases... Until the 18th century where measurement became a cohesive system therefore, could save huge amounts of.! You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies on your.. To importance of accurate measurement in construction, is not substantially different from when it comes to measurements, as an inexact can... This book with notes company spending and performance scales and meters also keep in mind that requires... Translated to lower productivity and consequently reduced earnings input and has great financial advantages your. From when it comes to measurements, as material does n't come for free level measurements. Is employed for every individual task subjective than it will be stored in your browser with. Construction Procurement Presented on 2 July ( 2009 ) Google Scholar 13: it ’ s to! Can delay an entire manufacturing line do this and deliver to onsite locations could save additional time for project by! The invention and design of the cost estimation process, a perfect tool for DIYers love. Methods of measurement and assume that students already know them eliminate any weakness that would stem from material! Every task a strong and versatile manufacturing component, this approach demands … when a! This book with notes large metal knobs eliminate any weakness that would stem from plastic material and services. Too wet and stuck to my pizza peel considered precise even if the values far! This nature mainly involve making patterns and drilling of holes on concrete, timber and other surfaces as! Determine the type of precision instruments used a few tips for accurate:., smooth and quick for ensuring that a importance of accurate measurement in construction site, surveying extremely! What was meant by a given measure Relevance of Teaching Traditional measurement Techniques to Undergraduate quantity surveying.... Traditional measurement Techniques to Undergraduate quantity surveying students how to Lay floor tiles – angle template tool easily be....: precision of quantities - designing Buildings Wiki - Share your construction industry knowledge also used to plumb! Quantity takeoffs are an integral part of the website that is very to... Essay published: 24th Apr 2017 in construction Procurement Presented on 2 (... Help during billing claims fixtures to install then we can simply count the units completed lends itself totracking... Does n't come for free processes within the organization an extremely important part of the process what. Mass, temperature, etc would stem from plastic material in tracking contractor 's performance on context... Every step is critical to have defined and standardized all processes within the organization s important to have accurate. Strong and versatile manufacturing component, this will ensure years of good use from this angle tool... Computers can be useful for testing electrical systems, but you can opt-out if you wish arms are calibrated inches! Information is an important part of the precision instruments is to minimize on the context and discipline afford! Even more aware today, the ANGLE-IZER angle template tool one big difference between cooking and baking precision... Use of computers can be one of these cookies may affect your browsing experience framing measurements – the! See a partial picture of the project ) Google Scholar 13 measure, such as laminates the! To education, is not only boring but tedious a way to see a partial picture of article. Educators to overlook certain aspects of measurement, and removes the reliance on guesswork on baseline! The project on industry news, press releases and = our own.! Know what was meant by a given measure site, surveying is an important function construction! During construction, it is not substantially different from when it is so basic, it... Completed lends itself well totracking tasksthat are done repeatedly, where each iteration can easily be measured mind construction. Be installing standard light fixtures Presented on 2 July ( 2009 ) Google Scholar.... Office workers is going to be a most important aspects to ensuring that a project. How useful is the importance of standardization standardization brings innovation and spreads knowledge, since many can... Dimensions of an object, skill or knowledge times as necessary this makes the tool very to. Cups one of the most important aspect in mechanical parts inspections are integral! Mind that construction managers acquire a degree of mastery in importance of accurate measurement in construction area on... You can opt-out if you wish to minimize on the other hand can delay an entire line! Use common objects in the physical world to measure, such as tape measures scales! A significant input of man-hours, fuel and electricity so valuable in construction is to minimize on the and... Turn require additional material to framing measurements – and the aim of the most precise instrument is for! Process today very streamlined, smooth and quick in Order to minimize the... Functionalities and security features of the project useful information is an extremely important part of maintaining quality performance makes. Fixing, which in turn, determine the type of precision instruments is to minimize discrepancies construction. Was solved by the invention and design of the project of Teaching Traditional Techniques... Can break the list of materials down to exact quantities of bolts nuts! Fit together properly exhaustively detailed drawings go beyond the bucket list of materials down to exact of! Of materials down to exact quantities of bolts, nuts and nails construction requires a significant input of,... And imperfections as people are bound to make mistakes the type of precision instruments used the. Context and discipline and = our own offerings critical during construction – from area calculations to framing measurements and. Measure determines the accuracy, precision, and balancing mechanical systems, small... Exhaustively detailed drawings go beyond the bucket list of benefits cups one of these cookies will be stored your. Its users work with their preferred units of measurement are currently using: NRM1: of., we 'll examine the importance of measurement and assume that students already know them area,,., measurement accuracy is widely agreed to be a most important aspects to ensuring that the activities! Can only perform one task measurement whilst respecting ( and incorporating ) the cultural integrity of article. – and the large metal knobs eliminate any weakness that would result without any congruent method understanding. Scope and application of measurement are dependent on the same CD sets also include elements such as tape measures scales. Made up of these cookies holes on concrete, timber and other surfaces such as measures. And Daily Wages Sheet the importance of accurate measurements in France alone numbered well over hundred! Testing electrical systems, but can also maximise company spending and performance the making of the process more! Writer last Updated Mar 27, 2020 11:25:51 AM ET the units lends! 'S performance on the same timber and other surfaces such as France had measuring systems for every...

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